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ASSURE模式在中职英语教学中的应用研究
作者:天天论文网 日期:2018/7/17 10:07:43 点击:

Abstract

ASSURE model is the core content of Instructional Technology and Media for Learning in 1989 by Sharon Smalsino, Robert Heinich, Michael Molenda and James. D. Russell. The six letters of ASSURE model represent six steps of teaching activities, including analyzing learners, stating objectives, selecting methods, media and materials, utilizing materials, requiring learner participation and evaluating and revising. It has been a widely accepted teaching model and obtains the good results in foreign language teaching. So how to use ASSURE model in the secondary vocational English teaching is worth exploring.

In this paper, the research questions are shown as follows: 1. What influence does the ASSURE model have on students1 English exam results in secondary vocational school? 2. What influence does the ASSURE model have on students' interest in learning English in secondary vocational school? 3. What influence does the ASSURE model have on students1 confidence in learning English in secondary vocational school? In order to answer the above three questions, the author adopted qualitative and quantitative research methods. Firstly, before the experiment, the author conducted a questionnaire among 91 students from Lishi Normal School, in order to understand whether students have interest in learning English or not and to know their recognition on the ASSURE model. Secondly, based on the relevant theories and studies of ASSURE model, an experiment is conducted in Lishi Normal School. In this experiment, the subjects are students of two classes (1501 and 1502) and they are in Grade two from Lishi Normal School in Shanxi. Before the experiment, they took part in the pre-test. Class 1501 was the control group, taught with traditional multimedia-assisted foreign language teaching. Class 1502 was the experimental group and the teacher adopted the ASSURE model. After the experiment, they took part in the post-test. In addition, the questionnaire was conducted again in

experimental class in order to check whether the ASSURE model can be good for students1 learning.

The major findings are shown as follows. Before the experiment, the results of students' questionnaire shows that students' interest in learning English is low and they will pay little attention to English and be unwilling to learning English hard and take part in teaching activities. The results of pre-test show that the differences in exam results between the experimental class and the control class are not significant and exam results of the two groups are lower, which mean that English level of the two groups are basically same. However, the results of post-test shows that the mean of exam results of the control class is lower than that of the experimental class and the difference between above the two groups are significant. So it can be concluded that the ASSURE model is more effective in improving the students' exam results than traditional teaching model. Moreover, from the results of questionnaire and interview, it can be seen that the ASSURE model can motivate students' learning interest in English and increase their confidence in learning English.

There are some limitations in this study, but they can still get some helpful findings for English teachers when they use the ASSURE model.

Key Words: Secondary Vocational School English teaching The ASSURE model

ASSURE模式在中职英语教学中的应用研究

摘要

ASSURE模式是美国的教育技术专家夏龙•斯马德井,罗伯特•海涅克,迈 克尔•莫伦达和詹姆斯•罗素等四人1989的著作《教学技术与媒体》的精髓所在。 ASSURE模式中六个字母分别代表教学活动中的六大步骤:分析学习者特征, 陈述教学目标,选择方法、媒体和材料,运用媒体和材料,要求学习者 参与,评价与修正。ASSURE模式作为一种已被广泛接受的教学模式,已经幵 始在国外教学实践中有所运用,并取得实效。那么,如何将ASSURE模式和中 职英语教学结合起来,正是当下值得探究的教育技术学课题。

本篇论文主要回答两个问题:1.ASSURE模式对中职学生的英语成绩有 什么影响? 2.ASSURE模式对学生学习英语的兴趣有什么影响? 3. ASSURE 模式对学生学习英语的信心有什么影响?为了回答以上三个研究问题,笔者采 用定量研究与定性研究的方法。首先,实验前,笔者运用中职学生英语学习调查 表对离石师范分校的91名学生进行问卷调查,旨在了解学生对学习英语的兴趣 以及相关的学习情况。其次,笔者在学习分析ASSURE模式相关理论之后, 幵展了实验研究。离石师范分校二年级两个班(1501班和1502班)的学生 参与了本次实验。实验前进行了一次前测,然后对收集的数据用SPSS19.0进 行分析,主要包括描述性统计,独立样本t检验和配对样本t检验。实验中,1501 班为控制班,在该班采用传统的多媒体辅助教学;1502班为实验班,在该班 采用ASSURE教学模式。经过四个月的教学,两班学生同时接受了一次后测, 笔者再次用SPSS19.0进行分析。最后,实验结束后,笔者在实验班幵展了一 次问卷调查和一次访谈,调查ASSURE教学模式是否对学生的学习活动有很大改善。

从实验前的调查问卷的结果显示:学生普遍缺乏学习英语的兴趣和信心, 他们很少花心思努力学习英语,不愿意积极参加英语学习活动。从实验结果可以看出:前测的结果显示两个班的学生的英语成绩没有显著差异,他们的 英语能力基本上处于同一水平,且这两个班的学生的英语学习水平均较低。 而后测结果显示两班的英语成绩有了明显的差异,且实验班的英语成绩明显 的高于控制班的英语成绩,这说明ASSURE教学模式可以使学生的学习成绩 获得显著性的提高。再者,实验班的问卷和访谈的结果也可反映出ASSURE 教学模式可以增加学生学习英语的兴趣和信心。

虽然本次研究存在一些局限性,但是本论文的一些发现还是有意义的,能为英语教师在选择ASSURE模式时提供一些参考。

关键词:ASSURE模式英语教学中职

Abstract II

m w iv

Contents VII

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1  Research background 1

1.2  Significance of the thesis 2

1.3  Framework of the thesis 3

Chapter 2 Literature review 4

2.1.1  The ASSURE model 4

4.1  The definition of ASSURE model 4

4.2  Advantages of ASSURE model 7

4.3  Studies on the ASSURE abroad and at home 8

2.1.2 Theoretical basis 12

4.2.1 Gagne' teaching events 12

4.2.2 Constructivism theory. 12

4.2.3 Situation cognition and learning theory. 14

Chapter 3 Research Methodology. 16

4.2.3 Research question 16

4.2.3 Subjects 16

4.2.3 Instruments 16

4.2.3 Questionnaires 16

4.2.3 Pre-test post-test 17

4.2.3 Interview 17

4.2.3 Procedures 18

4.2.3 A sample case of the ASSURE model 18

Chapter 4 Results and Discussion 24

1.1 Research results and discussion of tests 24

2.1.1 Independent Samples T-test of two classes in the pre-test 24

2.1.2 Independent Samples T-test of two classes in the post-test25

2.1.3 Paired Samples T-test in the experimental class 26

2.1.4 Paired Samples T-test in the control class 27

2.1.5 Overall analysis of the tests 28

1.2 Research results and discussion of questionnaires 28

The results of the questionnaire before the experiment 28

The results of the Questionnaire after the experiment 32

Overall analysis of the questionnaires 35

1.3 Research results and discussion of interview 36

Chapter 5 Co门elusion 38

Major findings 38

Pedagogical implications 39

Limitations and suggestions for future study. 40

References 42

Appendix 1 47

Appendix II 49

Appendix III 52

Acknowledgments 53

In this chapter, the research background of the thesis, its significance and framework will be mainly introduced.

Research background

In secondary vocational school, English is a compulsory course. However, secondary vocational students have an unstable English foundation their interest in learning English is not strong, so that English has become a weak subject in secondary vocational school. With the increase of learning contents and relevant difficulties, a number of students show resistance to English learning, such as boredom, depression and anxiety. Even there are a few students almost give up learning English. How to stimulate students1 initiative in learning English and improve their enthusiasm in learning English is a problem that every teacher in secondary vocational school must be faced with.

The traditional English teaching, students just passively receive and learn in the learning process, with lack of effective communication. The traditional English teaching makes it difficult to stimulate students1 interest and play their subjective initiative, strangling students' individuality. Multimedia technology makes learning environment effectively simulate reality and provides English teaching with more space for extension, such as effectively improving the interaction between teachers and students and promoting collaborative learning between students and students, which conform to the teaching idea that teachers teach students depending on students' characteristics and their cognitive level. The integration of information technology and English course make students' creativity and individuality get great development and it has a far-reaching significance on improving students1 English level.

Multimedia teaching is the major trend of the development of teaching in China, which is an important guarantee for the modernization of English education. However, due to various reasons, the development and utilization

of multimedia teaching resources is low in secondary vocational school English, resulting in multimedia resources wasted seriously. In addition, the application of multimedia teaching resources in English teaching is relatively weak and the English classroom teaching reform has not yet made substantive progress under the environment of multimedia teaching. So how to combine multimedia resources with the secondary vocational English teaching is worth exploring. The effective teaching activities need careful planning and multimedia teaching also needs it. The ASSURE model is a classic and effective guide to use multimedia, whose six letters represent six steps of teaching activities, including analyzing learners, stating objectives, selecting methods, media and materials, utilizing materials, requiring learner participation and evaluating and revising. Thus, the author will do a study on the application of ASSURE model in secondary vocational English teaching, hoping that more and more teachers can understand and use ASSURE model so that it can promote the development of secondary vocational English teaching and improve the development of multimedia teaching.

Significance of the thesis

Based on the guidance of English syllabus in the secondary vocational school, the goals of setting up English course are to make students master a certain amount of basic English knowledge and skills so as to improve their English communicative competence. However, with the passive effect of traditional English teaching, students' negative attitudes to English and multimedia resources wasted seriously, it is difficult to achieve these above goals. As this study holds that ASSURE model based on multimedia might have a positive effect on achieving goals established in English syllabus. So, One of the purposes of the thesis is to prove whether the ASSURE model based on multimedia is suitable for students in secondary vocational school and it can improve students1 English exam results.

The ASSURE Model attaches great importance to the analysis on the

characteristics of each learner, especially to the analysis on learners' cognitive, skills, attitudes and learning styles, which helps teachers to know every student deeply and focus on emotions of every student. The second purpose of the thesis is to see if the ASSURE model based on multimedia can give students a specific and vivid language environment so as to change vapidness of English classroom teaching, which tries to increase their interest in learning English. Moreover, the author will check if the ASSURE model based on multimedia can provide students more chances to communicate more efficiently and actively with each other and get their teachers feedback so as to enhance their confidence in learning English.

Framework of the thesis

In this thesis, there are five chapters. In chapter One, it is about introduction. The research background of the thesis, its significance and framework are contained. Chapter Two is about Literature review, including the definition of ASSURE model, theoretical basis and researches on ASSURE model abroad and at home. In Chapter three, research design is introduced in detail, such as research questions, research subjects, instruments, procedure and experiment. Chapter Four is about data collection and analysis, which makes us know that the effect of the Assure model on students1 English exam results and the effect of the Assure model on students' interest and confidence in learning English. Chapter five is about conclusion.

In this Chapter, the author will mainly introduce the definition of multimedia teaching and its relevant studies, the definition of ASSURE model and related research and theoretical basis

The ASSURE model

The definition of ASSURE model

The ASSURE Model was put forward first in Instructional Media and Technologies for Learning 1989 by Sharon Smalsino, Robert Heinich, Michael Molenda and James. D. Russell. It is based on cognitive learning theory and Nine Instruction Events of Robert. M. Gagne, which is famous for its operability, conciseness, logic and learner-centered. Besides, it is a valuable teaching design model, which can be widely accepted, and applied into classroom teaching remote education and the enterprise training. The ASSURE model makes planning and implementation of teaching design systematical and teachers can implement teaching activities depending on the process of the ASSURE model. Each letter of the ASSURE model represents a step of teaching design. It concludes the following six specific steps.

A ----Analyze Learners

Learners are also called teaching objects, including students, trainees and social adults. The characteristics of learners can be analyzed from the following aspects. ( 1 )The general characteristics of learners. It refers to the learners1 age, grade, job type, position sort, cultural level, religious belief and

social economic background. (2) The entry competency of learners. It means that learners has relative knowledge, target skills and attitudes, as well as the cognition of related learning before they are engaged in some learning tasks.

(3 ) Learning style. It refers to a set of psychological traits that make us perceive different stimuli, such as talents, anxiety, motivation, physiology, habits of dealing with information and perceptional preference and intensity.

S----State Objectives

Clear learning objectives can lead teachers to choose appropriate teaching media and teaching methods, design appropriate teaching order, create right teaching environment and proper evaluation protocols. In order to achieve the teaching aims, we can treat learning objectives as a contract between teachers and students, which state respective activities and responsibilities of teachers and students. Here, the goals are what learners should achieve, which are the description about achievement of learning results rather than about how to achieve learning results. In ASSURE Model, there are four requirements about learning objectives, which are Audience, Behavior, Condition and Degree. Generally, the audience is mainly students. Verbs are the important elements of stating objectives. Behaviors are used to show which ability students should have after finish teaching. Condition is used to explain which way students will adopt when they finish their tasks. Degree can be treated as a standard to measure students1 behavior.

S----Select the Methods, Media and Materials

With the analysis of the first two stages, teachers can know current levels of knowledge and skills of learners and state objectives and find out the starting point of teaching or learning and final result of teaching. This stage includes three steps: (1) Select teaching methods to finish specific tasks; (2) Select corresponding media types; (3) According to different media types to select modify or make special media resources.

U----Utilize Materials

After choosing media and methods, teachers and students set about to utilize them from two aspects : ( 1 ) Teachers make preparation for teaching; (2) Students use the media. With the increasingly rich media resources, the application of teaching material gradually turns from 搕eaching-centered" to learning-centerecr. Through research and practice over the years, the basic process and principles of utilizing materials have been formed, which are put forward in ASSURE model, including to preview the materials, to prepare the materials, to prepare the environment, to prepare the learners and to provide the learning experience.

5 . R----Require Learner Participation

In the process of implementing classroom teaching, it is a significant part that learners participate in it actively. And effective learning should be that teachers make students pay their attention and produce response, practice their skills and give appropriate and timely feedback. These feedbacks can be gotten from students themselves, exercises on printed materials, and other learning partners. Group discussion, quizzes, homework and formative exercise can provide effective practice and feedback. From the point of the ASSURE Model, interpersonal feedback, which is more active and humanized, is the most effective feedback.

6. E----Evaluate and Revise

To evaluate and revise is the last step of the ASSURE Model, which is treated as an important procedure to design teaching with high-quality. The purpose of evaluation is to check whether learning goals are achieved and whether teaching media and teaching methods are valid. Correction is to promote teaching constantly so as to accumulate experience on how to further improve teaching quality. Therefore, teachers should evaluate teaching results in time and make records for the following teaching. And the response of learners is the most important source of evaluating information. So teachers should evaluate the whole teaching process so that they can examine whether learners achieve expected teaching goals and whether teaching media and materials can help learners to learn. After making evaluation on teaching results, teachers should rethink them and modify related teaching so as to improve teaching methods and enhance teaching quality.

A teaching design model does not automatically ensure that teaching can obtain good results. Because different models focus on different key points and have different approaches to deal with elements of teaching. The variability and variety of teaching process, the richness of teaching situation and the huge difference of learners will have an effect on the final teaching results. However, if teachers choose appropriate teaching methods, it will help to control these above elements.

From the above analysis, it can be seen that the ASSURE Model is an overall framework to implement teaching design, covering general preparation, actual rehearsal, teaching and evaluation and correction. But the ASSRE Model is not a complete systematic instructional design process so it can not ensure that teaching must have good results. When combined with teaching contents and other classroom procedures, it can play its role effectively.

Advantages of ASSURE model

As we all know, people will not obtain good teaching results only depending on media and technology. When people rely on effective teaching design to make media and technology play a role, they will get good results. With the development of teaching design theories and practices, a series of monographs about teaching design and modes about process of teaching design have sprung up. Sharon. E. Smalsino (1989) pointed out that the ASSURE model is better than other teaching designs, on how to use media and technology effectively in the classroom environment. The ASSURE model is the guide that can help teachers integrate teaching media and technology systematically and help them design and implement teaching. It is also a teaching design model that leads teachers to complete main steps of

systematic teaching design. Compared with current teaching designs, the ASSURE model has the following advantages.

Firstly, ASSURE model focuses on analysis on the characteristics of students, which is the first step of teaching design. Characteristics of students can be divided into three aspects, which are general characteristic, entry level competency and learning style. Although there is a little analysis on learners in current teaching design, it is not done in detail. Besides, there is no coherent data and analysis on learners1 entry-competency and learn styles in current teaching design.

Secondly, ASSURE model focuses on proper usage of media and materials. In the ASSURE model, teachers are required to select, make and use media and materials, based on the analysis of the students. Moreover, teachers are asked to attach great importance to utilization of media, in order to create teaching situations, provide learning experience and require students to participate in learning. The author thinks that it is more suitable to use media and materials correctly for the information teaching than the current teaching mode.

Thirdly, ASSURE model focuses on evaluation of students. In the ASSURE model, evaluation and revision of teaching need refer to students?ideas and teachers should pay more attention to students1 evaluation on teaching methods, media and materials. Evaluation and revision of ASSURE model is more rich and more close to students1 reality, compared with teachers1 personal reflection in the existing design of teaching.

Although, the ASSURE model and the current teaching design have something in common, the ASSURE model is more effective and helpful.

Studies on the ASSURE model abroad and at home

Firstly, studies on the ASSURE model abroad are presented as following.

At present, the application of the ASSURE model has been very mature abroad and contents of its teaching design almost have covered all aspects of teaching practice. /A?sf/T7cf/or;a/ 7"ec/7r;o/ogy and /Wec//a Zb厂/_ea厂(eighth edition) was a classic textbook on the researches of education technology, which gave a comprehensive description of all kinds of teaching media and technology and introduced how to integrate media and technology into the teaching activities depending on the ASSURE model. In this book, they introduced examples on practical application of the ASSURE model respectively for each kind of instructional technology and media in different disciplines, which provided good reference for the application of the ASSURE model design in real teaching.(seen in Table 2-1).

Table 2-1 the application of ASSURE model among different subjects

Instructional Technology and Media

ASSURE lesson Plan Title

Subject

Visual

Principles

A Presentation to Management

Sales and Marketing

Computers

An Author Reads Her Short Story

Literature

Multimedia

Exploring New Worlds

Science: Space Exploration

Distance Education

Mathematics

Mathematics

Online Learning

The Panama Canal

Social Studies

Instructional Material and

Displays

Using the Web to Learn about the Holocaust

Social Studies

Visuals

Visual Literacy and Writing

Reading and Writing

Audio

Vocational Technical College Welding Class

Welding

Video

World History: The Magna Carta

History

In addition, James e. Reppert (1997) applied the ASSURE model and

wrote an article which was Instructional Design of a University Public

Speaking Course, for the whole process of teaching design of college English public speaking course. He respectively relied on the six steps of the model to design teaching, select and use media and materials, which makes teaching get good results. These cases about practices of foreign teaching design will provide important experience and reference for this study.

Secondly, they are about studies on the ASSURE model at home.

Before, the ASSURE model was not attached enough importance and was not used in teaching widely in China. Besides, relevant theory researches were relatively limited. With the development of teaching, the ASSURE model has been applied to teaching in China and mainly covered three aspects: the introduction of theories and concepts, network teaching and college education.

/nstructfonaf Technology and Media for Learning (eighth edition) was translated into Chinese by Guo Wenge in 2008 who was a professor from College of Education of Peking University, which provided help for teachers to use ASSURE model. What抯 more, there are other experts in pedagogy field who have also use the ASSURE model. For example, Pei Dina(Pei Dina, 2007), who was a professor in Beijing Normal University, introduced ASSURE model and gave some explanation and evaluation on connotations and concrete application of ASSURE model. Pei Dina argued that the ASSURE model was an open teaching design mode. It focused on helping designers and teachers to integrate media into the teaching process effectively, through providing instructive thinking of basic classroom teaching events and design tools. About the concrete application of ASSURE model, Professor Pei put forward some notes. Firstly, the ASSURE model provides general operation procedures and methods and has high principles and generality, so teachers should grasp its core steps in the process of using this model. Secondly, the ASSURE model is actually open-ended; teachers need to improve it depending on the teaching practice and should not imitate this model mechanically in the process of concrete application. Thirdly, the ASSURE model leaves creative space for teachers. In the process of concrete teaching design, designers should also pay attention to the particularity of specific teaching situation to use this model flexibly so as to form concrete methods and strategies, which is suitable for teaching.

In China, there are a few empirical study on the application of ASSURE model in network teaching. For example, Yan Dan (2009), who was from Shanghai International Studies University, designed ASSURE model-based guidance web for classic English readers in order to integrate the advantages between traditional classroom teaching and multimedia network teaching. The results of this paper proved that the design of ASSURE model-based guidance web for classic English readers met the needs of different learners and improved their abilities of reading novels and their English exam results. In addition, Mao Chun (2007), who was a teacher in Southwest University, conducted an empirical study on the application of this model in the network teaching so as to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of network teaching, according to the characteristics of the network teaching and procedures of it.

The result of the study is that we get a model on the application of ASSURE model in network teaching, which can guide the network course and the design and development of teaching website.

Gao Liming (2000) described the application of ASSURE model in a course, which was Communication Media and Information Technology. She thought that the application of ASSURE model was a main reason why this course can achieve success and ASSURE model made the course more interesting, enlightening, interactive and practical. Liu Yan (2012), who was from South-central University For Nationalities, took undergraduate students in the two classes from Wuhan Textile University as the subjects of the experiment and she used ASSURE model to design college English teaching and implement these designs, with the purpose to explore effectiveness of application of ASSURE model in college English teaching. 


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